How many components of information processing model are there? Explain them briefly?

There are three Major components of information processing model which are as follow:
a) Sensory register
b) Short-term memory (working memory)
c) Long term memory

Components of information processing model are as follow:


Sensory register:

  • Sensory registers consist of things like transducers who convert one type of energy into another type of energy.
  • There is sensory store also known as sensory register present in each sensory system.
  • Responsibility of each sensory register or sensory store is that it briefly holds all the information that is received from internal or external stimuli for a short period of time.
  • Next working responsibility of a sensory register is that it sends this information to the working memory or discards this information.
  • For the purpose of discards or sending the information into working memory the sensory registers stored the information for enough time for unconscious processes to analyze it and after the sensory registers decide to send the information into the working memory or discards it.

Short-term memory (working memory):

This memory is also known as working memory.

  • Another names used for this memory are primary or active memory.
  • This memory holds the information for short period of time only but not manipulating it.
  • This memory is like a CPU. In computers CPU (Central Processing Unit) performs the main tasks so it is called brain of computer.
  • Short term memory is center of conscious thought.
  • In this memory information is combined from the long term memory and from the environment.
  • When information is combined in short term memory this information is used for the purpose of solving the problems.

Long term memory:

  • Everything that a person knows saved in the long term memory.
  • When items are stored in the long term working they are like asleep and when want to use them we recall them in the short term memory for the purpose of use.

There are two components of long term memory which are as follow;

Explicit memory:

Explicit memory is a type of long term memory that stored the information which requires our conscious work to remember such as when we want to remember the answer of a question which is difficult to remember for us. This memory stored that information that requires our efforts to remember that information.


Implicit memory:

In this type of memory that information is stored which require no effort to remember that information.

It means that in this memory information is stored unconsciously and effortlessly.
Information in this type of memory remains last as little as for few days or for long as delay.

This type of memory becomes fade after a sometime due to natural forgetting process.
A method of several recall or retrievals of memory is used to preserve the long term memory.

Why human mind forgets information, explain the reasons behind it?

There are many reasons why human mind forgets information some of them are discussed below;


  • When a new theory is formed, memory traces are created every time.
  • As time passes memory traces which are created at the time of new theory formation starts fading and disappearing.
  • A research shows that material remembered after a 1 day is 54%.
  • As days increases the remembered information becomes fade such as after 63 days the remembered information remains only 17%.
  • Another point that shows why human mind forgets information is of no recalling or review of information that we hear.
  • We forget information also when we don’t reflect on that information in few coming days.
  • Some studies also show that when someone does not recall the lectures after 14 days then 90% material forgot.
  • A very important point why human mind forgets information is without review most of the information will be lost from the memory.
  • We forget the information also when we don’t review or recall the information within 1 day or two days after listening that information.
  • Sometime information is not fade but misplaced or we don’t sort them properly, we don’t connect them properly in the brain so we forget them.
  • We forget the information also when a conflict arises between the old and new information occurs due to lack of space in the brain.
  • At the point when you are learning a lot of data one after another, we will in general recall best what is perused or introduced first and last. The rest of information gets lost in the shuffle.

Define the situated cognition and write down the benefits of situated cognition for students in your own words?

Situated cognition:

 Situated cognition is a theory that sets that knowing is indivisible from doing by challenging that all information is arranged in action bound to social, cultural and physical settings. This theory also tells us that we can’t separate knowledge from that situation or context in which that knowledge was acquired. In simple word we can say that learning can’t happen in isolation from our environment or from other people

. The concept of learning knowledge and skills in that manner these both things can be used in real life.

Benefits of situated cognition for students:

Some benefits of situated cognition for students are as follow:

  • By the help of this theory student learns about the conditions where and how they can apply their knowledge.
  • BY the help of this theory the ability of problem solving and inventions are also enhanced.
  • Students can also apply their knowledge in efficient manner due to this theory.
  • Because in this method the learning of students is systematic so the students learns the knowledge in that way in which they use it properly and in better way.
  • Situated cognition allows students to imitate the skills that lead to the development of their own mastery.
  • Situated cognition helps the students to see a model in action and they try to perform based on that model.

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