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- Vygotsky: he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law
- Social Learning Theory: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory postulates that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
- Not a form of intelligence, according to Gardner multiple intelligence. The visual auditory dimension.
- In December of 1917, he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law.
- Vygotsky was called “The Mozart of Psychology“
- Industriousness vs. Inferiority Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion.
- Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years) Achieving personal independence.
- According to Bandura, personality is shaped by an interaction among cognitive factors,
behaviors and environmental factors. This interaction is termed reciprocal determinism.
- In 1963, they published Social Learning and Personality Development
- According to Erikson what conflict is experienced during fifth stage (13-21) identity versus role confusion
- According to Erikson what conflict is experienced during seventh stage (40-65) generativist vs. stagnation?
- According to Erikson what conflict is experienced during sixth stage (21-39) intimacy vs isolation
- According to Erikson what conflict is experienced during eighth stage(65)ego integrity vs despair
- According to Erikson what conflict is experienced during forth stage(5-13)industry vs inferiority
- a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of
obtaining that knowledge.
- The ability to thinking about abstract ideas and situations is the key symbol of the
formal operational stage of cognitive development.
- Interpersonal intelligence Understanding social etiquettes and norms are of the different situations
- He died on June 10, 1934, at the young age of thirty-seven after long battle with TB.
- Projective techniques are:The Rorschach Ink Blot Test.
- Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened when it’s followed by reinforcement, and weakened when followed by punishment.
- Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of
new information, a process known as accommodation.
- Type theorists hold that personality differences are due to an imbalance of FOUR
humors or body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
- Havighurst identifies three sources of developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972
- Vygotsky was born in
- Early adulthood (19 to 29 years) Managing a home
- Safety is the feeling people get when they know no harm will befall them, physically,
mentally, or emotionally
- People with high verbal linguistic intelligence probably they are good at:
- Infancy – Early Childhood (birth to 5 years) Learning to take solid foods.
- Maslow suggested that the first and most basic need people have is the need for
- Naturalistic intelligence You can recognize and classify all types of animals, plants and minerals in the real world
- In 1913 entered Moscow University through lottery. In December of 1917, he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law
- Ability to use the body purposefully is called Body Kinesthetic Intelligence
- Howard Gardner theory of multiple intelligence which intelligence is related with the capacity to use language. Linguistic
- Scaffolding “role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to the next stage or level” Vygotsky.
- Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by
- Multiple intelligence is created by Howard Gardner.
- Age group of identity vs role confusion stage 6-11
- Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and
- Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent
- Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four
different stages of mental development.
- According to Erikson psychological theory which crisis describe that person shows active involvement in teaching and guiding the youngsters generatively vs stagnation.
- Vygotsky Belong to Middle-class Jewish family.
- Intelligence is measured through intelligence testes that are individual’s tests (Stanford Binet test) as well as group tests (Wechsler tests)
- Vygotsky’s work did not become known in the West until 1958, and was not published there until 1962.
- Self efficacy: Similar to confidence. The belief that one is capable of performing a
certain behaviour to attain a certain goal
- Constructivism Is an approach to teaching and learning based on the idea that cognition is the result of “mental construction”
- Adolescence (13 to 18 years) Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes.
- Vygotsky completed 270 scientific articles.
- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) proposed the concept vygotsky
- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The difference between what a child can do independently and what the child needs help from a more knowledgeable person to do.
- Behaviorism, which originated with the work of the American psychologist John B.
- In 1913, Watson published an article also known as “The Behaviorist
- Ability to make and read graphs is Logical mathematical intelligence.
- Operant Conditioning introduced by FSkinner
- During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events. The Concrete Operational Stage
- Sources of development tasks are given by havinghurst 3
- Number of stages in Developmental task theory 6
- According to vygotsky Knowledge is not transferred passively, but is personally constructed.
- In humanistic approach Maslow arranged human needs in hierarchies Five
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in
his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
- Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective
of others. The Preoperational StageAges: 2 to 7 Years
- Classical Conditioning – Pavlov
- According to Skinner a behavior is strengthened when it’s followed by: Reinforcement
- Good leader or manager and have to coordinate with employees then you might have
good interpersonal intelligence Interpersonal intelligence
- Psychosocial theory of personality development by Erikson is divided into 8 stages.
- Initiative vs. Guilt Ages 3-5
- Identity vs. Role Confusion Ages 12-18
- As per trait theory when a person is outgoing and like social gathering is categorized as
- Howard gardner has divided intelligene in 8 categories.
- At which stage a person is able to get married, starting a family and managing home? Early Adulthood Advertisement
- Basic strength: Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion of erikson theory Fidelity –
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is proposed in
- The above formula of calculating IQ, presently known as Ration IQ is no longer used.
Instead deviation IQ.
- Which of the following point is not the Contributions of Erikson ambiguous terms and concepts.
- A seven-year-old who is developing necessary concepts and achieving personal
independence is in Middle childhood.
- Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years ) Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games and developing basic skills in reading , writing and calculating.
- Infancy – Early Childhood (birth to 5 years) Learning to take solid food Learning to walk Learning to talk
- The Rorschach Ink Blot and Thematic Apperception Tests are examples of which personality
assessment technique Projective methods
- In classical conditioning, an unlearned, inborn reaction to an unconditioned stimulus is an? Unconditioned response
- Thinking develops in recognizable stages which depend on natural maturation: