cs601 midterm solved papers 2021
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cs601 midterm solved papers 2021

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cs601 midterm solved papers 2021

Symptoms .The Need for Symbols
o One of the biggest concerns of the body layer is the presentation of the information in the form of electrical signals in the TX medium.Details can be word, picture, numerical data, letters or any message readable and meaningful to the destination user (person or m / c).

o Generally, the information used by a person or application is not in the form they can
transmitted over the network. o For example, you can’t wrap a picture, put it in a phone and then transfer it across the city.
o You can however send a written description of the image
o Binary digits must be converted to TX form. The medium can accept
o TX. The role of the media in conducting energy in a tangible way. So the data
1s and 0s broadcasts should be converted to power in the form of EM signals.

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™ Analog and Digital
o Both independent data and symbols can take analog or digital form.
¾ Atonement
• Analog means something that progresses over time.
• Continuous- A collection of specific points and all available points b / w
to them.
¾ DIGITAL
• Digital refers to something different.
• Discrete – A set of specific data points with no points in between
Data can be Analog or Digital.
9 ANALOG example Data is a human voice.
9 When someone speaks, a wave is formed in the air.
9 This can be captured by microphone and converted to Analog Signal.

9 Example of DIGITAL data Data stored in the memory of a
computer in the form of 1s and 0s. It is usually converted to digital
signal when transferred from one position to another within or
without a computer Symbols can be Analog or Digital.

™ ANALOG Signal
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 56
CS601-Data Communication VU

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It is a continuous wave of motion that changes smoothly over time As the wave moves from the ‘A’ to the ‘B’, it passes again incorporates an infinite number of values ​​in its path

cs601 midterm solved papers 2021

™ Digital Signal
o The digital signal is different. It can only have a limited number specified
values, simple times like 1 and 0
o The conversion of a digital signal from number to value is as fast as a
the light is turned ON and off
Analog and Digital Signals
o We often show signs by arranging them in pairs of equal axis
o A vertical axis represents the value or strength of a signal
o Horizontal axes represent the passage of time
o The curve representing the Analog signal is smooth and continuous, passing
with an infinite number.

cs601 midterm solved papers 2021
o Vertical digital signal lines indicate a sudden jump made by a signal
from number to number. Flat height and low allow for that values.

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o In short, Analog signal varies continuously Time while Digital signal it varies rapidly
Period Signs Symptoms (Analog or Digital) Aperiodic period.

cs601 midterm solved papers 2021.The sign is called Periodic when it fills the pattern in a timely manner frame called Period and repeat that pattern over the next one
Times Completion of one complete pattern is called CYCLE
Time: Time required (in seconds) to complete one complete cycle, represented by.
™ Time Signs
The Aperiodic or Non-Periodic sign is the one that is const antly changing
without showing a repeating pattern or cycle over time.

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• Fourier conversion
Proven a process called FOURIER TRANSFORM that any Aperiodic signal can be eliminated into an infinite number Of the Signs of the Time.

o Analog signals can be classified as Simple or Composite
o Simple Analog Signal (Sine Wave)
-Can’t rot into a simple signal
o Integrated Analog Signal
-Constructed of multiple sine waves
™ We have Wave
o Sine Waves are the most important form of Periodic Analog Signals
o The curve slides in the middle of the cycle smoothly and consistently

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