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cs508 midterm solved papers by hadi. Language of Planning LISP: Functional Paradigm and LISP. Active programs A program style that emphasizes testing of
speeches, rather than issuing orders. The expressions in these languages are
it is built using functions to combine basic values. Active language is language
supporting and promoting programs in a practical style.
LISP is the language that represents this style of program.
Lisp stands for “LISt Process”. It was founded by John McCarthy in 1958 at MIT. Ine
simple data structure (atoms and lists) and is widely used for duplication. It’s a way of
translation language also varies greatly. The two most common types are
Scheme and Common Lisp (de industrial standard). It is the most widely used AI
programming language. Valid items. The LISP system consists of two types of objects: atoms and lists.
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Atoms consist of numbers, symbols, and strings. Supports both real numbers and whole numbers.
symbols: symbol in LISP sequence of characters (no space). Because
for example a, x, and the price of a cow are symbols. There are two special symbols: T and NIL true and logical.
string: string is a sequence of letters bound by double quotations. For example “this
red “is a thread.
S-expression: The S (S figurative symbol) is a data representation or i a statement in the LISP format in the form of text. Visible to widespread use of start notation used explicitly in brackets (known as Cambridge Polish text).
S expressions are used for both code and data in Lis. S speeches at the beginning intended only as mechanical representations of human-readable representation of symbols, but the Lisp editors began to use S expressions as the default text. S-expressions can be single objects or atoms such as numbers, or a list.
Listing is the most important concept for LISP. A list is a group of atoms and / or a list,
arrested by (no). For example (a b c) and (a (b c)) two lists. In these examples examples of list (a b c) is a list of atoms a, b, and c, and (a (b c)) is a list of two elements, the first
one atom a, and the second a list (b c).