cs302 final term short notes

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Counters:Counter circuits supported flip-flops are widely utilized in Digital Systems. Besidescounting, these counters are used as frequency dividers and with minor changes within the circuit.

They are used as shift registers. Counters are classified as Asynchronous and Synchronouscounters. Asynchronous counters because the name indicates aren’t triggered simultaneously.

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Themultiple flip-flops that are connected together to make a counter circuit don’t receive thetriggering clock signal simultaneously.

Theclock signal thus ripples through successive flip-flops. Synchronous counters on the otherhand have all the clock inputs of the multiple flip-flops connected to a standard clock signal.

Allthe flip-flops during a Synchronous counter receive clock signals simultaneously.Asynchronous and Synchronous are further classified as up counters or down countersdepending upon the sequence during which they count.

Asynchronous Counters (Ripple Counters)Asynchronous counters are implemented by connecting together multiple flip-flopstogether. The triggering clock signal is connected to the clock input of the primary flip-flop. On a clock transition at the clock input of the primary flip-flop the output state of the flip-flopchanges.

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With the transition within the output state of the primary flip-flop, there’s also a transition atthe clock input to the second flip-flop because the output of the primary flip-flop is connected to the clockinput of the second flip-flop.

Thanks to the clock transition the second flip-flop changes its outputstate. The change within the output state of the second flip-flop occurs after the primary flip-flopchanges its state.

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Theoutputs of the flip-flops change during a sequence because the clock signal propagates through the flipflops as they modify their output states one after the opposite. The Asynchronous counters arealso referred to as Ripple Counters thanks to the rippling effect of the clock signal.

Within the circuit diagramshown the Q output of every is connected to the clock input of subsequent flip-flop. The J-K inputsof each of the three flip-flop are connected to logic high allowing the flip-flop to toggle theiroutput state on a high to low transition at their clock input.

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The output state of the primary flip-flop toggles at every positive to negative clock transitionin intervals t1 to t8. The output F2 toggles its output state at intervals t4and t8 on a high to low transition of the flip-flop output F1.

cs302 final term short notes

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